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Friday, 18 April 2014

New Energy Drink That Gives You Erection

 New Energy Drink That Gives You ErectionMosKa, an energy drink marketed to adults that is guaranteed to give them an erection.

According to the authorities, the drink may not provide the happy ending which the consumers were hoping for, reported. The drink that was earlier promoted at Sexpo Sydney last year apparently contains vardenafil, a prescription-only substance, at levels above what was allowed in Australia.

The side effects could cause nausea, abdominal and back pain, palpitations and priapism, where the penis remains erect for longer than four hours, as it includes ingredients that are used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

An advisory said that if those bottles were found at the border by Customs they will be seized and destroyed.


12-year-old is the Youngest Mother in Britain

After giving birth to a baby girl, this 12-year-old schoolgirl and her 13-year-old boyfriend have now become the youngest parents in Britain.

The girl was in primary school when she conceived. According to The Sun, "The baby's mum and dad have been in a relationship for more than a year, so this isn't a fleeting romance. They intend to stick together and bring their daughter up together."

The girl's mother will be Britain's youngest grandmother at just 27 years. Parents of both the girl and the boy are supporting them. The girl's mother was with her when they went to register the birth.

The father of the girl told a radio station that he and his ex-partner were not aware of the situation and he is proud of his 12-year-old schoolgirl.

The girl's father said, "The families on both sides are going to be very supportive about it. It is heartbreaking, but you can't turn back time. You can only go forwards."

Her friends also had no clue that she was pregnant. They found out about it when she suddenly stopped coming to school last month. She will return to school in September. The girl studies in class 7, while the new father goes to class 9, at different schools.

The girl is five months younger than the previous youngest mother of the UK, Tressa Middleton, who gave birth in 2006. It is said the couple met in a park when she was just 10 years old and together their age is the lowest for any British parents.

The previous youngest parents of the country were both 14 years old, when their son was born in south Wales in 2010.


Wednesday, 16 April 2014

Everest trek shows how some people get type 2 diabetes

Scientists have gained new insights into the molecular process of how some people get type II diabetes, which could lead to new ways of preventing people from getting the condition.
The research, led by the University of Southampton and UCL, which took place on Mount Everest, assessed the mechanisms by which low oxygen levels in the body – known as hypoxia – are associated with the development of insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance is when cells fail to respond to insulin in the body. Insulin enables the body to regulate sugar levels. Too much sugar can be toxic and leads to type II diabetes.
The research, published in PLOS ONE, found that several markers of insulin resistance were increased following sustained exposure (6-8 weeks) to hypoxia at high altitude and that this change was related to increased blood levels of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. The data came from a study called Caudwell Xtreme Everest, which took place in 2007 and was coordinated by the UCL Centre for Altitude, Space and Extreme environment medicine (CASE Medicine).
The study was led by Mike Grocott, Professor of Anaesthesia and Critical Care at the University of Southampton, co-founder of UCL CASE Medicine, who now leads the Critical Care Research Area within the Southampton National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit. He comments: "These results have given us useful insight into the clinical problem of insulin resistance. Fat tissue in obese people is believed to exist in a chronic state of mild hypoxia because the small blood vessels are unable to supply sufficient oxygen to fat tissue. Our study was unique in that it enabled us to see things in healthy people at altitude that which we might normally only see in obese people at sea level. The results suggest possible interventions to reduce progression towards full-blown diabetes, including measures to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation within the body."
During the study, 24 people travelled to Mount Everest and underwent assessments of glucose control, body weight changes and inflammation biomarkers at Everest Base Camp, which is at an altitude of 5,300m. Half the group remained at Base Camp while the other half climbed the mountain to a maximum of 8,848m. Measurements were taken in each group at week six and week eight of the trek.
The aim was to increase understanding of critically ill patients. The team also made the first ever measurement of the level of oxygen in human blood at 8400m, on the balcony of Everest. This is the centrepiece of an extensive and continuing programme of research into hypoxia and human performance at extreme altitude, aimed at improving the care of the critically ill and other patients where hypoxia is a fundamental problem. The most recent experiment by the same team, Xtreme Everest 2, took place in spring 2013.
Dr Daniel Martin, Senior Lecturer and Honorary Consultant, UCL Division of Surgery and Interventional Science and Director of UCL CASE Medicine, adds: "These exciting results give us a unique insight into the possible mechanism of insulin resistance in diabetes and provide some clues as to where we should be thinking about focusing further research on novel treatments for this disease. It also demonstrates the value of using healthy volunteers in studies carried out at high altitude to patients at sea level. Our high altitude experimental model for investigating every day illnesses that involve tissue hypoxia is a fantastic way to test hypotheses that would otherwise be very difficult to explore."
Source: University of Southampton

Rising demand for herbal medicine can increase cultivation of medicinal trees

Formalizing trade in herbal medicinal products has the potential to increase the demand for on-farm grown raw material and raise the level of cultivation of medicinal tree species in smallholder farms.
A study carried out by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in Kenya shows that trade in herbal medicinal products is rising in the urban areas and formalization in terms of better hygienic packaging and labeling of the products is likely to increase cultivation of these tree species.
Traditional medicine is practiced in in many rural areas in the developing world. The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of Africans rely on traditional medicine, a great proportion of which is herbal, to meet their health needs and this could increase because of the rising acceptability of natural therapies.
The study published in the scientific journal, Forests Trees and Livelihoods, says that In Kenya, the majority of traditional medicines are sold as wild plant parts, but in urban areas, demand for traditional medicines is rising and this is leading to increased formalization of the market, with traditional medicines now found in powders, liquids and creams.
Jonathan Muriuki, lead author of the study and research scientist at ICRAF, believes that as lifestyles improve, consumers demand better quality. "This opens up greater opportunities for trade in medicinal tree products among actors in the value chain, such as collectors, producers, healers, processors, manufacturers and even exporters," outlines Muriuki.
Muriuki and co-authors set out to learn where medicinal plant traders in Kenya sourced their raw materials and to determine if formalization of the market could provide more opportunities for cultivation.
"Cultivation would not only provide a sustainable supply of medicinal products but also increase the incomes of poor smallholder farmers while addressing current problems of over-harvesting and resource degradation which have reduced the abundance of wild materials."
Their research revealed that 49 per cent of traders in herbal medicine sourced materials from farms and the demand was rising. However, 69 per cent of traders expressed a preference for materials sourced from the wild mainly because they perceived these plants would have higher potency than farm-grown material. Such perception is based on the expectation that wild plants will have grown to full maturity and in rich soils with less interference from human activities such as chemical application.
Those who preferred farm-sourced material said this was because of expected higher quality from good crop husbandry, increasing scarcity in the wild, and for some, a deliberate choice to conserve wild resources.
"While these types of formal enterprise are fairly recent in Kenya, we found that they are all experiencing annual growth and demanding more uniform raw materials which cultivation can provide," says Muriuki.
The study reveals that most farmers sell timber and fruits from their trees but are not selling medicinal tree products because they do not have access to markets "Farmers stated they would sell medicinal products if they had access to market opportunities," says Muriuki. "Access to markets for other tree products has led to increased cultivation of tree species providing these, so it would be fair to assume the same could be applied for medicinal trees".
To improve the market in traditional medicines, the study recommends linking traders to farmers in the form of grower groups, especially women, which could initially focus on the most traded species as alternative crops are recommended.
Source: Forests Trees and Livelihoods,

Body Mass Index associated with breast cancer, regardless of body shape

A study of predominantly white women finds a larger waist circumference is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but not beyond its contribution to BMI. The study, by American Cancer Society researchers, fails to confirm previous findings that body shape itself is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. The current study appears in the April 2014 issue of Cancer Causes, and Control.
A significant body of research has linked abdominal obesity to a number of conditions, including heart disease, type II diabetes, and breast and other cancers. Those studies have led to the theory that having an "apple shaped" body, with weight concentrated in the chest and torso, is riskier than having a "pear-shaped" body, with fat concentrated in the hips, thighs and buttocks.
To explore the theory, researchers led by Mia Gadet, PhD, analyzed data from 28,965 women participating in the Cancer Prevention Study II. Among those women there were 1,088 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed during a median 11.58 years of follow-up. They found a statistically significant positive association between waist circumference and postmenopausal breast cancer risk; however, when they adjusted for BMI, the association disappeared.
"The message is that if you have a high BMI, regardless if you are pear or apple shaped, you are at higher risk of breast cancer," said Dr. Gaudet. "Most prior studies on this issue looked at BMI or at waist circumference, but had not looked at them together. This study brings some clarity to the association between obesity and risk of breast cancer."
Dr. Gaudet says the data could help women focus on what's important in what has been a confusing array of potential risk factors for breast cancer. "We know being overweight, particularly when the weight gain happened during adulthood, is one of the important modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in post-menopausal women. This new data indicates it's not what shape you are, it's what kind of shape you are in that probably ought to be their focus."
Source:American Cancer Society

Eating Rice Reduces Body Weight

 Eating Rice Reduces Body Weight
Rice consumption was found to boost diet quality, reduce body weight and improve markers for health, shows study published in Food and Nutrition Sciences.

"Our results show that adults who eat rice had diets more consistent with what is recommended in the U.S. Dietary Guidelines, and they showed higher amounts of potassium, magnesium, iron, folate and fiber while eating less saturated fat and added sugars," said Nicklas. "Eating rice is also associated with eating more servings of fruit, vegetables, meat and beans," she added. 

Americans enjoy some 27 pounds of enriched white and brown rice per person per year with the majority (70%) of rice consumption coming from enriched white rice. Americans eat a variety of grain-based foods, but rice stands out because it is eaten primarily as an intact grain that is naturally sodium free and has only a trace amount of fat, with no saturated fat. Consumers can control adding fat, salt and flavors at their discretion. 

This research builds on two previously published studies that showed the positive contribution of rice to diet quality. A 2009 observational study using NHANES datasets and Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), found that rice eaters consumed significantly less fat and saturated fat and consumed more iron, potassium, fiber, meat, vegetables and grains.2 A follow-up study in 2010, also using NHANES datasets, included children in the study group and further confirmed that rice consumption was associated with greater intake of a range of healthier foods and nutrients.3The majority of rice consumed is white rice, indicating that rice, when consumed with other foods, such as fruit, vegetables, meat and beans, can provide valuable nutrients and boasts beneficial effects on consumer diets. 

"These studies taken together demonstrate that if you focus on eating the right combination of foods, it will help Americans get closer to meeting their nutrient needs. The key recommendation of the Dietary Guidelines is, after all, that our goal should be to aim for a healthy eating pattern. These studies show that rice eaters are doing this," said Anne Banville, vice president of the USA Rice Federation. 

In addition to the positive results in cross-sectional studies linking rice consumption with healthier diets, a human clinical trial found that having white or brown rice at a meal increased satiety and feelings of fullness more than a calorically equivalent glucose solution control.4 Considering the cross-sectional and clinical findings, both enriched white rice and whole grain brown rice should be recommended as part of a healthy diet. 

Rice is a Nutrient-Rich Carbohydrate Rice is a quality carbohydrate. Rice is a naturally nutritious grain that provides about 100 calories per half-cup cooked serving and is naturally free of gluten. Brown rice is a 100% whole grain food and white rice is enriched with important nutrients, including folic acid and iron. 

Both enriched white rice and whole grain brown rice are considered nutrient-rich quality complex carbohydrates and can be part of a sustainable, plant-based diet that promotes optimal health. Enriched white rice contributes more than 15 vitamins and minerals, including folate and other B vitamins, iron and zinc to the diet. Brown rice is slightly higher in dietary fiber, magnesium and phosphorus, but lower in B vitamins and iron than enriched, fortified white rice. Rice is naturally low in sodium and cholesterol free and contains traces of fat and no saturated or trans fats. 

Food and Nutrition Sciences.


Casual Marijuana Use Linked to Brain Abnormalities

 Casual Marijuana Use Linked to Brain Abnormalities
Recreational use of marijuana is linked to abnormalities in two key brain regions that are important in emotion and motivation, report scientists. The study was a collaboration between Northwestern Medicine® and Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School.
This is the first study to show casual use of marijuana is related to major brain changes. It showed the degree of brain abnormalities in these regions is directly related to the number of joints a person smoked per week. The more joints a person smoked, the more abnormal the shape, volume and density of the brain regions. 

"This study raises a strong challenge to the idea that casual marijuana use isn't associated with bad consequences," said corresponding and co-senior study author Hans Breiter, M.D. He is a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and a psychiatrist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. 

"Some of these people only used marijuana to get high once or twice a week," Breiter said. "People think a little recreational use shouldn't cause a problem, if someone is doing OK with work or school. Our data directly says this is not the case." 

The study will be published April 16 in the Journal of Neuroscience. 

Scientists examined the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala -- key regions for emotion and motivation, and associated with addiction -- in the brains of casual marijuana users and non-users. Researchers analyzed three measures: volume, shape and density of grey matter (i.e., where most cells are located in brain tissue) to obtain a comprehensive view of how each region was affected. 

Both these regions in recreational pot users were abnormally altered for at least two of these structural measures. The degree of those alterations was directly related to how much marijuana the subjects used. 

Of particular note, the nucleus acccumbens was abnormally large, and its alteration in size, shape and density was directly related to how many joints an individual smoked. 

"One unique strength of this study is that we looked at the nucleus accumbens in three different ways to get a detailed and consistent picture of the problem," said lead author Jodi Gilman, a researcher in the Massachusetts General Center for Addiction Medicine and an instructor in psychology at Harvard Medical School. "It allows a more nuanced picture of the results." 

Examining the three different measures also was important because no single measure is the gold standard. Some abnormalities may be more detectable using one type of neuroimaging analysis method than another. Breiter said the three measures provide a multidimensional view when integrated together for evaluating the effects of marijuana on the brain. 

"These are core, fundamental structures of the brain," said co-senior study author Anne Blood, director of the Mood and Motor Control Laboratory at Massachusetts General and assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. "They form the basis for how you assess positive and negative features about things in the environment and make decisions about them." 

Through different methods of neuroimaging, scientists examined the brains of young adults, ages 18 to 25, from Boston-area colleges; 20 who smoked marijuana and 20 who didn't. Each group had nine males and 11 females. The users underwent a psychiatric interview to confirm they were not dependent on marijuana. They did not meet criteria for abuse of any other illegal drugs during their lifetime. 

The changes in brain structures indicate the marijuana users' brains are adapting to low-level exposure to marijuana, the scientists said. 

The study results fit with animal studies that show when rats are given tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) their brains rewire and form many new connections. THC is the mind-altering ingredient found in marijuana. 

"It may be that we're seeing a type of drug learning in the brain," Gilman said. "We think when people are in the process of becoming addicted, their brains form these new connections." 

In animals, these new connections indicate the brain is adapting to the unnatural level of reward and stimulation from marijuana. These connections make other natural rewards less satisfying. 

"Drugs of abuse can cause more dopamine release than natural rewards like food, sex and social interaction," Gilman said. "In those you also get a burst of dopamine but not as much as in many drugs of abuse. That is why drugs take on so much salience, and everything else loses its importance." 

The brain changes suggest that structural changes to the brain are an important early result of casual drug use, Breiter said. "Further work, including longitudinal studies, is needed to determine if these findings can be linked to animal studies showing marijuana can be a gateway drug for stronger substances," he noted. 

Because the study was retrospective, researchers did not know the THC content of the marijuana, which can range from 5 to 9 percent or even higher in the currently available drug. The THC content is much higher today than the marijuana during the 1960s and 1970s, which was often about 1 to 3 percent, Gilman said. 

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the U.S. with an estimated 15.2 million users, the study reports, based on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2008. The drug's use is increasing among adolescents and young adults, partially due to society's changing beliefs about cannabis use and its legal status. 

A recent Northwestern study showed chronic use of marijuana was linked to brain abnormalities. "With the findings of these two papers," Breiter said, "I've developed a severe worry about whether we should be allowing anybody under age 30 to use pot unless they have a terminal illness and need it for pain." 

Journal of Neuroscience.


Don't Blame Low Vitamin D Levels for Menopause Symptoms, Says Study

A new study from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) shows no significant link between vitamin D levels and menopause symptoms. The study was published online in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society.
The authors analyzed the relationship between the blood levels of vitamin D and a number of menopause symptoms, including hot flashes, night sweats, sleep disturbance, concentration, and forgetfulness in 530 women who participated in the calcium and vitamin D WHI trial. 

There was good reason to look for a link because other studies have implied some relationship. For example, breast cancer patients with higher vitamin D levels have fewer hot flashes and other symptoms than women with lower levels. Supplementing vitamin D can improve mood in other groups of people. The vitamin can protect against depletion of serotonin, which plays a role in regulating body heat. And vitamin D deficiency can result in muscle and joint pain. 

Furthermore, estrogen plays a role in activating vitamin D, meaning that the estrogen deficiency that comes with menopause could worsen any problems with vitamin D deficiency.The number of symptoms and vitamin D levels had a borderline significant relationship at first, but after the analysts adjusted for multiple comparisons, the association disappeared. And in looking at multiple comparisons, no individual menopause symptoms were significantly associated with vitamin D either. 

"With so many women taking vitamin D supplements these days, it is good to know what it can and cannot do. We need to be realistic in our expectations," says NAMS Executive Director Margery Gass, MD. The authors cautioned that this study doesn't entirely prove that vitamin D levels and menopause symptoms are not connected because the sample of women they had with enough data was relatively small and the women, who averaged age 66, were nearly 16 years from menopause, and only 27 percent of the women in this group had hot flashes or night sweats. Looking at vitamin D levels in women as they go through the menopause transition might be valuable.
The North American Menopause Society.



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