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Thursday, 8 November 2012

LARGE, MULTI-ETHNIC STUDY FINDS THAT ADDING SOY TO THE DIET DOES NOT AFFECT ONSET OF MENOPAUSAL HOT FLASHES


A team of investigators led by UC Davis found that eating soy products such as soy milk and tofu did not prevent the onset of hot flashes and night sweats as women entered menopause.
Unlike previous studies investigating the relationship between soy and these menopausal symptoms, the current study included a very large population over a long period of time: more than 1,600 women over 10 years.
Ellen Gold © UC Regents
Ellen Gold
The article, titled "Phytoestrogen and Fiber Intakes in Relation to Incident Vasomotor Symptoms: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation," was published online today inMenopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society and will appear in the March 2013 print issue of the journal.
"Given that most women experience unpleasant symptoms, particularly hot flashes and night sweats, during menopause, we were hopeful that certain dietary intakes would provide good alternatives to hormone therapy," said Ellen Gold, lead author of the study and professor and chair of the UC Davis Department of Public Health Sciences. "Unfortunately, based on our study, soy-related foods did not turn out to be the 'magic bullet.'"
The study analyzed data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), which followed more than 3,000 premenopausal and early perimenopausal women with annual visits for 10 years. Women answered detailed questionnaires of their dietary habits at baseline, year five and year nine, and in each year were asked about the frequency of various menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats.
The new study focused on the 1,651 women who had not yet had hot flashes and night sweats (called vasomotor symptoms) at the beginning of the study, because the investigators wanted to specifically evaluate the effect of dietary factors on preventing the onset of these symptoms.
The main dietary factor of interest in this study was phytoestrogens, also known as plant-based estrogens. Predominantly found in tofu, soy milk and other soy-containing foods, phytoestrogens have a chemical structure similar to estrogen and are believed to mimic the effects of the female hormone in the body. Since estrogen levels drop during menopause, the investigators hypothesized that a diet high in phytoestrogens would reduce menopause symptoms. They also evaluated the participants' consumption of fiber, because it is thought to increase the availability of estrogens in the body.
The study found no consistent correlations between dietary phytoestrogens or fiber and the onset of menopausal symptoms in women who were not yet postmenopausal when they started the study.
Although other studies have examined similar hypotheses, the outcomes have been somewhat inconsistent. Most previous studies evaluated women who were already postmenopausal and having symptoms. Also, a clear dose-response relationship -- showing that the more phytoestrogens or fiber women consumed, the less likely they were to develop symptoms -- has not been consistently found.
The authors conceded that to determine conclusively if a relationship exists between such dietary intakes and the onset of menopausal symptoms, a large, randomized, placebo-controlled trial would be needed with many years of follow-up. However, they stated that such a study would be costly and difficult, and their results indicate that finding a clinically significant or large effect would be unlikely.
The study had many advantages over earlier studies. It included detailed dietary information on a large number of women from across the U.S. who were followed over the course of a decade. SWAN also included women from different racial and ethnic groups, including white, African-American, Hispanic, Chinese and Japanese women.
"In general, women of Asian ancestry report fewer menopausal hot flashes than do women of European backgrounds," said Gail Greendale, a specialist in geriatric medicine with UCLA Health System and the UCLA principal investigator of the SWAN Phytoestrogen Study. "The 'Eastern' dietary pattern, which is high in phytoestrogens, has been one of the proposed explanations for the ethnic differences in hot flash occurrence. Our findings do not support the theory that higher phytonutrient intakes are associated with lower hot flash rates."
"This study contributes to the discussion about the effects of phytoestrogens on symptoms at menopause," added Gold, who was principal investigator of the UC Davis/Kaiser Permanente site of the SWAN study. "But it is not the final word. Other advantages to these compounds may exist, or it may be that a subset of women will benefit from phytoestrogen intake because of their genetic makeup, which could affect their metabolism of these dietary factors."
Soy products © iStockphoto
Soy products
Led by UCLA, the SWAN Phytoestrogen Study investigators are also studying the effects of phytoestrogens on bone density and cognition, as well as whether the ability to produce a metabolite called equol when digesting phytoestrogens may have an effect. Equol appears to have greater biological potency as an estrogen mimic than other breakdown products of phytoestrogens, and Asians are more likely to be equol producers than non-Asians.
SWAN was supported by the National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Nursing Research and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research on Women's Health. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Phytoestrogen Ancillary Study was supported by NIH grant AG030448.
 
In addition to Gold and Greendale, the study authors were Elaine Waetjen with the UC Davis Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mei-Hua Huang of the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, and Katherine Leung and Sybil Crawford with the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester.
About UCLA Health SystemFor more than half a century, UCLA Health System has provided the best in healthcare and the latest in medical technology to the people of Los Angeles and throughout the world. Comprising Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, UCLA Medical Center, Santa Monica, Resnick Neuropsychiatric Hospital at UCLA, Mattel Children's Hospital UCLA, and the UCLA Medical Group with its wide-reaching system of primary-care and specialty-care offices throughout the region, UCLA Health System is among the most comprehensive and advanced healthcare systems in the world. Our physicians are world leaders in the diagnosis and treatment of complex illnesses, and our hospitals are among the best in the country. Consistently ranked one of the top five hospitals in the nation and the best medical center in the western United States by U.S. News & World Report, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center is at the cutting edge of biomedical research, and our doctors and scientists are leaders in performing pioneering work across an astounding range of disciplines, from organ transplantation and cardiac surgery to neurosurgery and cancer treatment, and bringing the latest discoveries to virtually every field of medicine.
About UC Davis Health SystemUC Davis Health System is improving lives and transforming health care by providing excellent patient care, conducting groundbreaking research, fostering innovative, interprofessional education and creating dynamic, productive community partnerships. The academic health system includes one of the country's best medical schools, a 619-bed acute-care teaching hospital, a 1,000-member physician's practice group and the new Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing. It is home to a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center, an international neurodevelopmental institute, a stem cell institute and a comprehensive children's hospital. Other nationally prominent centers focus on advancing telemedicine, improving vascular care, eliminating health disparities and translating research findings into new treatments for patients. Together, they make UC Davis a hub of innovation that is transforming health for all. Source: www.healthsystem.ucdavis.edu.

Grandfathers play a more prominent role


Europeans spend much time with their grandchildren. And past 70, the grandfather takes the lead.
Norwegian sociologist Knud Knudsen sets great store by his grandchildren. In that respect, he is typical of the grandparents in Europe who are the subjects of his recent research.“Europeans with grandchildren generally opt to spend a good deal of time with them,” says 67-year-old Knudsen, who is professor of sociology at the University of Stavanger (UiS).
“And grandfathers appear to be more involved than before,” he adds. In a new study, he found that grandmothers are clearly more involved with their grandchildren when a couple is younger.
However, this gender disparity gradually changes with the years. Among the oldest age groups, grandfathers usually show greater solicitude.
At the same time, he has found that involvement with grandchildren naturally enough declines for both genders with advancing years.
Active grandfather of four
Knudsen himself has four grandchildren aged between one and 11 – one in Oslo and three in Stavanger – and he is together with them as often as possible for both play and more serious matters.
He and wife Gro collect grandchildren every Tuesday both from nursery school and day care facilities before the youngsters start homework, sports, dinner and play.
They often devote the weekend to their extended family and babysitting. “It provides new insights and instructive challenges, and gives more meaning to life,” says Knudsen.
More than 5000 grandparents
His study embraces about 5 500 grandparents aged 60-85 in 11 European countries – Austria, Denmark, France, Greece, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain and Belgium.
Called the survey of health, ageing and retirement in Europe (Share), this empirical dataset ranks as one of the largest in the continent.
“We’re likely to see more grandparents spending time with their grandchildren,” says Knudsen. “The basis for exercising this role can nevertheless differ between the genders".
“It’s an advantage for both of them to have a life partner at their side. But grandfathers are more dependent on this than grandmothers when it comes to playing their grandparent role.”
This is because a grandfather who still has his wife with him finds it easier to share in the life of his grandchildren.
“Grandmothers have traditionally had greater and more varied contact with the rest of the family, with responsibility for maintaining relationship,” Knudsen observes.
“As a woman, mother and grandmother, norms for caring are clearer for her and she inspires the grandfather. A partner is accordingly important for contributing to the extended family.
“That applies particularly for men as they get older. In line with other studies of gender and partnership, we see here that men in particular benefit from marriage.”
More shared lives
Both social and demographic changes underlie the substantial involvement by grandparents with their grandchildren. Three generations share more of their lives than before.
And new patterns are emerging, Knudsen reports: “We live longer and stay healthy for more of our lives. We’re better off and communicate more closely".“At the same time, today’s parents are occupied with work and career. Unlike earlier generations, when children came before education and job, modern parents are often older and in full work when they become responsible for offspring.”
Noting that this is where grandparents come in, he describes this as a win-win position. “Healthier and fitter grandparents who want to be with their grandchildren can be a big help to careerist parents in a hectic daily life".“At the same time, little has changed where marriage and partnership are concerned. As before, men often marry women who are a few years younger than them".
“And women still live longer than men. Although this can vary greatly, a man of 70 has a partner beside him more often than a woman of the same age".
“So while grandmothers are usually alone, a grandfather is in a marriage. Having a younger and healthy partner seems to be crucial for a man’s involvement with grandchildren.”
Investment for later help?
Some would undoubtedly explain this phenomenon as a reflection of the grandparents’ desire to invest time with their grandchildren in order to be helped later, Knudsen observes.
“But such arguments are only consistent with certain findings,” he adds. “If they were correct, widowed grandmothers would be with the grandchildren most – and that’s not the case.”
Sociological role theory appears to provide a better explanation, he says. Grandfathers and grandmothers can have very different personal and social starting points.
“So although the latter spend more time with grandchildren than the former, the difference in participation shrinks steadily after 60. Past 70, the grandfather usually takes the lead.”
It might be thought that older men still identify most with other interests, he says, and that women were accordingly better grandparents throughout their lives.
Men manage well
“In fact, however, men generally manage relatively well as grandparents. One important reason, as mentioned earlier, is that they usually still have their partner at their side.”
But big differences nevertheless exist. “Many grandparents have other priorities or live a long way from the grandchildren. That naturally affects the time they spend together.”
Norway is not one of the 11 countries in his study, but Knudsen says that its findings probably also apply to Norwegian conditions.
“After all, the research shows that demographic conditions have marked consequences later in life for grandparents more or less regardless of their country of residence".
“The differences between the European countries in the study are small - which represents an important finding in itself.”
Source:
Scientific literature: Knud Knudsen, European grandparents’ solicitude: Why older men can be relatively good grand-fathers, Acta Sociologica, Sept. 2012 vol 55 no 3 231-250, doi: 10.1177/0001699312447962.

Physical activity and gain in life expectancy -- quantified


We all know that exercise is good for you, but how good? While previous studies have shown the link between physical activity and a lower risk of premature mortality, the number of years of life expectancy gained among persons with different activity levels has been unclear—until now. In a new study from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute, researchers have quantified how many years of life are gained by being physically active at different levels, among all individuals as well as among various groups with different body mass index (BMI).
The study will be published on November 6, 2012 in PLOS Medicine.
"We found that adding low amounts of physical activity to one's daily routine, such as 75 minutes of brisk walking per week, was associated with increased longevity: a gain of 1.8 years of life expectancy after age 40, compared with doing no such activity," explained I-Min Lee, MD, associate epidemiologist in the Department of Preventive Medicine at BWH and senior author on this study. "Physical activity above this minimal level was associated with additional gains in longevity. For example, walking briskly for at least 450 minutes a week was associated with a gain of 4.5 years. Further, physical activity was associated with greater longevity among persons in all BMI groups: those normal weight, overweight, and obese."
In pooled data from six prospective cohort studies, the researchers examined associations of leisure-time physical activity of a moderate to vigorous intensity with mortality. They analyzed data from more than 650,000 subjects and followed subjects for an average of ten years- analyzing over 82,000 deaths. The large sample size allowed them to estimate years of life gained after the age of 40 among persons with different levels of physical activity and BMI.
The findings show that physical activity was associated with longer life expectancies across a range of activity levels and BMI groups. Participation in a low level of leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity, comparable to up to 75 min of brisk walking per week, was associated with a 19 percent reduced risk of mortality compared to no such activity.
Assuming a causal relationship, which is not specifically demonstrated in this research, this level of activity would confer a 1.8 year gain in life expectancy after age 40, compared with no activity. For those who did the equivalent to 150 min of brisk walking per week--the basic amount of physical activity currently recommended by the federal government--the gain in life expectancy was 3.4 years. These benefits were seen in both men and women, and among white and black participants. Importantly, they were also observed among persons who were normal weight, overweight, and obese. Participants faring best were those who were both normal weight and active: among normal weight persons who were active at the level recommended by the federal government, researchers observed a gain in life expectancy of 7.2 years, compared to those with a BMI of 35 or more who did no leisure time physical activity (a 5 ft 5 in tall person with BMI of 35 weighs 210 lb).
"Our findings reinforce prevailing public health messages promoting both a physically active lifestyle and a normal body weight," explained Dr. Steven C. Moore, PhD, research fellow at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and lead author of this study. This findings may also help convince currently inactive persons that even being modestly active is ''worth it'' for greater longevity, even if it may not result in weight control.
Source:Brigham and Women's Hospital 

Study Shows Young Adults With Addiction Benefit From Active Twelve Step Group Participation


 Young adults undergoing addiction treatment benefit from regular participation in Twelve Step-based self-help groups after discharge, according to a naturalistic study published electronically and in the journalDrug and Alcohol Dependence. The study was conducted collaboratively by the Center for Addiction Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School and the Butler Center for Research at Hazelden.
"Very little is known about the effects of Twelve Step attendance and involvement on outcomes for young adults. Our study shows that Twelve Step community resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), can provide local, accessible and cost-effective recovery resources for young adults during a stage in life when such support is rare," explains John F. Kelly, Ph.D., of the Center for Addiction Medicine.  Kelly authored the study with Robert L. Stout, Ph.D., of Decision Sciences Institute in Providence, Rhode Island, and Valerie Slaymaker, Ph.D., of the Butler Center for Research at Hazelden in Center City, Minnesota.
"Alcohol and drug use is high among young adults in general compared to other age groups.  Young people who are in early recovery from addiction face a tough time finding social support and supportive peer networks," said Slaymaker. "Because typical AA and NA groups are mostly comprised of middle-aged adults, we were pleased to find young adults can affiliate and fully engage in these support groups, and their engagement improves substance use outcomes over time." 
Analyses of over 300 young adults, ages 18-24, attending multidisciplinary, Twelve Step-based residential treatment for alcohol or other drug addiction focused on the extent to which participation and active involvement in community Twelve Step groups contributed to substance use outcomes over the course of one year following discharge. Average AA/NA attendance peaked at approximately 3 times per week at 3 months post-discharge, and dropped to just over once per week at the one year follow-up. Greater attendance was independently associated with higher abstinence days, even controlling for a variety of other factors such as motivation. An even stronger relationship was found for active group involvement, such as speaking up during meetings -- an effect that grew over time. 
Overall, the data suggest that merely attending community Twelve Step groups, while helpful, will only take a young adult's recovery so far. Consistent and active involvement maintains and increases the benefit of participation, resulting in sustained and improved outcomes over time. 
The study, titled "Emerging adults' treatment outcomes in relation to 12-step mutual-help attendance and active involvement," is published in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.
The Center for Addiction Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School delivers clinical evaluation, consultation and study-related clinical care in a multidisciplinary setting. The Butler Center for Research at Hazelden focuses on improving recovery from addiction by conducting clinical and institutional research, collaborating with other research centers and communicating scientific findings.

About Hazelden

Hazelden, a national nonprofit organization founded in 1949, helps people reclaim their lives from the disease of addiction. Built on decades of knowledge and experience, Hazelden offers a comprehensive approach to addiction that addresses the full range of patient, family, and professional needs, including treatment and continuing care for youth and adults, research, higher education, public education and advocacy, and publishing. It currently has facilities in Minnesota, Oregon, Illinois, New York and Florida.
Hazelden is committed to protecting the privacy of people who participate in Hazelden programs and abides by all applicable federal and state laws that protect such confidentiality.

Antioxidants may ease PAD blood pressure increase


Low antioxidant levels contribute to increased blood pressure during exercise for people with peripheral arterial disease, according to researchers at Penn State Hershey Heart and Vascular Institute.
Peripheral arterial disease, or PAD, affects an estimated 10 million Americans and increases the chance of death from a cardiovascular event. Reduced blood flow causes pain in the legs and increases blood pressure in people who have PAD. However, the causes of the disease are unknown.
"Past studies have shown that having low antioxidant levels and increased reactive oxygen species -- chemical products that bind to body cells and cause damage -- is related to more severe PAD," said Matthew Muller, postdoctoral fellow in Dr. Larry Sinoway's lab at Penn State College of Medicine, and lead author of the study.
Antioxidants prevent the reactive oxygen species from damaging cells.
"This study shows that blood pressure increases more with exercise in more severe PAD cases. By infusing the antioxidant vitamin C into the blood, we were able to lessen the increase in blood pressure during exercise," said Muller.
Vitamin C does not lessen the increase in blood pressure of PAD patients to that of healthy people. As the intensity of exercise increases, the effects of vitamin C decrease but are still seen. The researchers report their findings in the Journal of Physiology.
Penn State Hershey researchers looked at three groups of PAD patients to study the blood pressure increase. A group of 13 PAD patients was compared to people without PAD to see the effects of doing low-intensity exercise on blood pressure. From that group, a second group of nine patients was used to measure the effects of vitamin C. A third group of five PAD patients and five without PAD had their leg muscles electrically stimulated to remove the brain's role in raising blood pressure during muscle contraction in this disease.
Increased blood pressure during exercise occurs in both legs, before pain begins, and relates to the severity of the disease. By using electrical stimulation, the scientists show that the blood pressure increase comes from the muscle itself, since the brain is not telling the leg to contract and the pressure still increases.
"This indicates that during normal, everyday activities such as walking, an impaired antioxidant system -- as well as other factors -- plays a role in the increased blood pressure response to exercise," Muller said. "Therefore, supplementing the diet with antioxidants may help these patients, but more studies are needed to confirm this concept."
Source:Penn State 

Wednesday, 7 November 2012

Exercise Lowers Body Mass Index, Adds Healthy Years to Life

We know for sure exercise is good for us, but how good? A new study has attempted to quantify the number of years added to one's life by remaining physically active at various levels. While previous studies have shown the link between physical activity and a lower risk of premature mortality, the number of years of life expectancy gained among persons with different activity levels has been unclear—until now. In a new study from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH), in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute, researchers have quantified how many years of life are gained by being physically active at different levels, among all individuals as well as among various groups with different body mass index (BMI).
The study will be published on November 6, 2012 in PLOS Medicine
"We found that adding low amounts of physical activity to one's daily routine, such as 75 minutes of brisk walking per week, was associated with increased longevity: a gain of 1.8 years of life expectancy after age 40, compared with doing no such activity," explained I-Min Lee, MD, associate epidemiologist in the Department of Preventive Medicine at BWH and senior author on this study. "Physical activity above this minimal level was associated with additional gains in longevity. For example, walking briskly for at least 450 minutes a week was associated with a gain of 4.5 years. Further, physical activity was associated with greater longevity among persons in all BMI groups: those normal weight, overweight, and obese." 
In pooled data from six prospective cohort studies, the researchers examined associations of leisure-time physical activity of a moderate to vigorous intensity with mortality. They analyzed data from more than 650,000 subjects and followed subjects for an average of ten years- analyzing over 82,000 deaths. The large sample size allowed them to estimate years of life gained after the age of 40 among persons with different levels of physical activity and BMI. 
The findings show that physical activity was associated with longer life expectancies across a range of activity levels and BMI groups. Participation in a low level of leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity, comparable to up to 75 min of brisk walking per week, was associated with a 19 percent reduced risk of mortality compared to no such activity. 
Assuming a causal relationship, which is not specifically demonstrated in this research, this level of activity would confer a 1.8 year gain in life expectancy after age 40, compared with no activity. For those who did the equivalent to 150 min of brisk walking per week--the basic amount of physical activity currently recommended by the federal government--the gain in life expectancy was 3.4 years. These benefits were seen in both men and women, and among white and black participants. Importantly, they were also observed among persons who were normal weight, overweight, and obese. Participants faring best were those who were both normal weight and active: among normal weight persons who were active at the level recommended by the federal government, researchers observed a gain in life expectancy of 7.2 years, compared to those with a BMI of 35 or more who did no leisure time physical activity (a 5 ft 5 in tall person with BMI of 35 weighs 210 lb). 
"Our findings reinforce prevailing public health messages promoting both a physically active lifestyle and a normal body weight," explained Dr. Steven C. Moore, PhD, research fellow at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and lead author of this study. This findings may also help convince currently inactive persons that even being modestly active is ''worth it'' for greater longevity, even if it may not result in weight control. 

Source:PLOS Medicine
 
 

When parasites catch viruses


Researchers find a viral symbiont of a protozoan parasite increases virulence to the human host

When humans have parasites, the organisms live in our bodies, co-opt our resources and cause disease. However, it turns out that parasites themselves can have their own co-habitants.
Researchers from Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital and SUNY Upstate Medical University have found that the pathogenicity of the sexually transmitted protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis—the cause of trichomoniasis—is fueled by a viral invader. Trichomoniasis infections are more common than all bacterial STDs combined. Annually, trichomoniasis affects nearly 250 million people, typically as vaginitis in women and urethritis in men.
"Trichomoniasis is associated with devastating consequences for women due to inflammation and related risks of reproductive disease," said Raina Fichorova, leader of the research team as well as associate professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive biology at Brigham and Women's Hospital. "Our future goal is to determine how the viral symbiont and its inflammatory 'halo' affect the risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight."
"This is only one of two incidences that we know of for which the pathogenicity of a protozoan virus has been characterized," said Max Nibert, Harvard Medical School professor of microbiology and immunology and co-author of the paper. "When found together, the result is an increase in virulence of the protozoan parasite to the human host, leading to exacerbated disease."
This study, which was initiated by a Harvard Catalyst Pilot grant, will be published online in Public Library of Science (PLOS) One.
Rather than invading human cells, Trichomonas vaginalis attaches to their surface and feeds on them, sometimes remaining asymptomatic for a period of time. The virus, called Trichomonasvirus, infects the protozoan and increases its pathogenic power by fueling virus-specific inflammatory responses.
Moreover, carrying the protozoan parasite predisposes women to acquire sexually transmitted viruses, particularly HIV and human papillomavirus, or HPV, both of which can lead to serious diseases such as AIDS and cervical cancer, respectively. Fichorova and Nibert have recently obtained funding from the Harvard University Center for AIDS Research to find out if the virus itself is directly responsible for increased HIV risk.
According to Nibert, the virus-parasite symbiosis is the norm rather than the exception with this particular protozoan. Upwards of 80 percent ofTrichomonas vaginalis isolates carry the virus. "Unlike flu viruses, for example, this virus can't spread by jumping out of the cell into another one," said Nibert, who has pioneered molecular biology work on double-stranded RNA viruses, a category that includes Trichomonasvirus. "It just spreads between cells when they divide or mate."
According to the researchers, it is this double-stranded nature of the viral genome that contributes to increased virulence of the protozoan parasite. "The double-stranded RNA seems important to the signaling process," added Nibert.
Currently, trichomoniasis is treated with the antibiotic metronidazole. But this treatment is only effective on the protozoan. "When the medication is used, the dying or stressed protozoa release unharmed virions, which then signal to the human cells," explained Fichorova. As a result, the symptoms are aggravated, and this in turn might increase the danger it poses to pregnant women and their children.
"Ahead is more research to better understand the viral cycle and structural features that might be vulnerable to drugs, which will lead to opening new doors for better treatment of trichomoniasis and related diseases," said Fichorova. "Our complementary expertise, interdisciplinary team efforts and strong collaboration is the key to our future success."
Nibert added that basic research on Trichomonas vaginalis is not nearly as supported as he thinks it should be. "It is unfortunate that a human pathogen of such worldwide significance has been neglected to such a degree," he said.
Source:Harvard Medical School 

What's your ideal weight? Answer depends on what you see

Viewing a particular body size, associations of size with success both contribute to women's size preferences
"Visual diet," or the images that women see, may be just as critical to their weight preferences as associating certain body types with success, according to research published Nov. 7 in the open access journal PLOS ONEby Lynda Boothroyd at Durham University with colleagues from Newcastle University, United Kingdom.
Preferences for a particular body size may result from exposure to images of other women, or from learning that a certain body type is associated with aspirational goals such as high status or better health. To test which of these two influences may be more important in directing women's preferences, the researchers showed women a series of photographs of women of varying weights in high-end clothing, as well as eating-disordered patients in grey leotards. The participants' preferences for particular body types were evaluated before and after they saw different combinations of these pictures.
The results showed that viewing one type of figure, either smaller or larger, increased women's preference for that body type, regardless of whether they were depicted as aspirational or not. To a lesser extent, the researchers also found that exposure to aspirational images of overweight women could induce a preference for larger body types, even in the presence of lower-weight figures in the non-aspirational category. According to the authors, these results show significant support for the effect of a 'visual' diet.
Lead author Boothroyd says, "This really gives us some food for thought about the power of exposure to super-slim bodies. There is evidence that being constantly surrounded through the media by celebrities and models who are very thin contributes to girls and women having an unhealthy attitude to their bodies. Furthermore, it seems that even so-called 'cautionary' images against anorexia might still increase our liking for thinner bodies, such as those featuring the late French model Isabelle Caro, which is a sobering thought."
Source:Public Library of Science 

Loss of essential blood cell gene leads to anemia


Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have discovered a new gene that regulates hemoglobin synthesis during red blood cell formation. The findings advance the biomedical community's understanding and treatment of human anemias and mitochondrial disorders.
The study will be published online on November 7, 2012 in Nature.
The researchers used an unbiased zebrafish genetic screen to clone mitochondrial ATPase inhibitory factor-1 gene, or Atpif1. The gene allows animals—zebrafish, mice and humans for instance—to efficiently make hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood.
The researchers found that loss of Atpif1 causes severe anemia. Moreover, the researchers uncovered a broader mechanistic role for Atpif1—regulating the enzymatic activity of ferrochelatase, or Fech. Fech is the terminal enzyme in heme (a component of hemoglobin) synthesis.
"Our study has established a unique functional link between Atpif1-regulated mitochondrial pH, redox potential, and [2Fe-2S] cluster binding to Fech in modulating its heme synthesis," said Dhvanit Shah, PhD, BWH Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, first study author.
The researchers were also able to produce data on the human version of Atpif1, noting its functional importance for normal red blood cell differentiation, and noting that a deficiency may contribute to human diseases, such as congenital sideroblastic anemias and other diseases related to dysfunctional mitochondria (the energy powerhouses of cells).
"Discovering the novel mechanism of Atpif1 as a regulator of heme synthesis advances the understanding of mitochondrial heme homeostasis and red blood cell development," said Barry Paw, MD, PhD, BWH Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, senior study author.
Shah and Paw continue to identify new genes responsible for hematopoietic stem cell development and red cell differentiation. Their identification of new genes will elucidate the new mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis—the formation of blood cell components. Their work not only provides greater insight into human congenital anemias, but also new opportunities for improved therapies.
Source:Brigham and Women's Hospital 

Low prevalence of type 2 diabetes among regular black tea drinkers


Study backs other research suggesting beneficial link between black tea and development of diabetes

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is low in countries where consumption of black tea is high, suggests a mathematical analysis of data from 50 countries, published in the online journal BMJ Open.
The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased six-fold over the past few decades, and the International Diabetes Federation calculates that the number of those with the disease will soar from 285 million in 2010 to 438 million in 2030.
The authors systematically mined information on black (fermented) tea consumption in 50 countries across every continent, based on 2009 sales data collected by an independent specialist market research company.
And they analysed World Health Organization data for those same countries on the prevalence of respiratory, infectious, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer and diabetes.
Ireland topped the league table for black tea drinkers, at more than 2 kg/year per person, closely followed by the UK and Turkey. At the bottom of the table were South Korea, Brazil, China, Morocco and Mexico, with very low consumption.
A statistical approach, called principal component analysis (PCA), was used to tease out the key contribution of black tea on each of the health indicators selected at the population level.
This showed an impact for black tea on rates of diabetes, but not on any of the other health indicators studied.
The link was confirmed with further statistical analysis, which pointed to a strong linear association between low rates of diabetes in countries where consumption of black tea is high.
The authors acknowledge several caveats to their findings, however.
They caution that the quality and consistency of data among all 50 countries are likely to vary, as will the criteria used to diagnose diabetes. And what may seem positive at the population level may not work as well as the individual level.
They also point out that various factors are likely to have contributed to the dramatic rise in diabetes prevalence, and that a link between black tea consumption and the prevalence of the disease does not imply that one is caused by the other.
But their findings do back those of previous research, they say.
"These original study results are consistent with previous biological, physiological, and ecological studies conducted on the potential of [black tea] on diabetes and obesity"…and they provide "valuable additional scientific information at the global level," they write.
In recent years, a great deal of interest has focused on the health benefits of green tea, which contains simple flavonoids called catechins, thought to have anti-inflammatory properties, say the authors.
But the fermentation process, which turns green tea black, induces a range of complex flavonoids, including theaflavins and thearubigins, to which several potential health benefits have been attributed, they add.
Source:BMJ-British Medical Journal 

Protein reveals diabetes risk many years in advance


When a patient is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the disease has usually already progressed over several years and damage to areas such as blood vessels and eyes has already taken place. To find a test that indicates who is at risk at an early stage would be valuable, as it would enable preventive treatment to be put in place.
Researchers at Lund University have now identified a promising candidate for a test of this kind. The findings have been published in the journal Cell Metabolism.
"We have shown that individuals who have above-average levels of a protein called SFRP4 in the blood are five times more likely to develop diabetes in the next few years than those with below-average levels", says Anders Rosengren, a researcher at the Lund University Diabetes Centre (LUDC), who has led the work on the risk marker.
Higher levels in diabetes patients
It is the first time a link has been established between the protein SFRP4, which plays a role in inflammatory processes in the body, and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Studies at LUDC, in which donated insulin-producing beta cells from diabetic individuals and non-diabetic individuals have been compared, show that cells from diabetics have significantly higher levels of the protein.
Link between inflammation and diabetes explained
It is also the first time the link between inflammation in beta cells and diabetes has been proven.
"The theory has been that low-grade chronic inflammation weakens the beta cells so that they are no longer able to secrete sufficient insulin. There are no doubt multiple reasons for the weakness, but the SFRP4 protein is one of them", says Taman Mahdi, main author of the study and one of the researchers in Anders Rosengren's group.
Fivefold risk increase
The level of the protein SFRP4 in the blood of non-diabetics was measured three times at intervals of three years. Thirty-seven per cent of those who had higher than average levels developed diabetes during the period of the study. Among those with a lower than average level, only nine per cent developed the condition.
"This makes it a strong risk marker that is present several years before diagnosis. We have also identified the mechanism for how SFRP4 impairs the secretion of insulin. The marker therefore reflects not only an increased risk, but also an ongoing disease process", says Anders Rosengren.
The marker works independently of other known risk factors for type 2 diabetes, for example obesity and age.
Motivation for lifestyle changes
"If we can point to an increased risk of diabetes in a middle-aged individual of normal weight using a simple blood test, up to ten years before the disease develops, this could provide strong motivation to them to improve their lifestyle to reduce the risk", says Anders Rosengren, adding:
"In the long term, our findings could also lead to new methods of treating type 2 diabetes by developing ways of blocking the protein SFRP4 in the insulin-producing beta cells and reducing inflammation, thereby protecting the cells."
Source:Lund University

Tuesday, 6 November 2012

Tea Improves Overall Health

Tea in all its true forms improves the overall health of an individual, find recent studies. 
All true tea (white, green, oolong and black, as opposed to herbal varieties) comes from one plant: Camellia sinensis.he differences are in how they are processed, with white and green being the least processed, oolong in the middle and black the most processed. 
The processing changes the nutritional profile and some of the health effects. But no matter the process, all tealeaves are dense with flavonoids, health-promoting chemicals found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and most plants, said researchers. 
"About one-third of the weight of a tea leaf is flavonoids, which is high, especially when you consider there are virtually no calories," the Stuff.co.nz quoted Jeffrey Blumberg, professor of nutrition science and policy at Tufts University and chairman of the tea symposium, as saying. 
"A serving of tea is like adding a serving of fruits or vegetables to your diet," he added. 
Tea helps your heart by keeping blood vessels unclogged and flexible. Blood pressure and stroke risk were reduced in epidemiological and clinical studies (even with sugar added). 
In a double-blind, randomised study in which hypertensive men drank one cup of black tea daily, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced. 
The blood-pressure-lowering effect was maintained even after a large intake of fatty, sugary food, which usually constricts blood vessels, showing that "cardiovascular protection can be achieved even without much sacrifice and with normal intakes," said Claudio Ferri, a professor at Italy's University of L'Aquila School of Internal Medicine and co-author of the study. 
Healthier blood vessels create better blood flow, which means all of your organs, including the brain, are receiving more blood, oxygen and nutrients, enhancing your body's ability to fight disease. So, healthier blood vessel linings might be one reason why tea consumption seems associated with so many benefits. 
It improves bone health. After drinking four to six cups of green tea daily for six months, post-menopausal women with low bone mass (osteopenia) achieved an improvement in certain short-term measures of bone health in a National Institutes of Health-funded study conducted at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. 
They also improved muscular strength. Tea reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, preventing the usual bone and muscle breakdown. 
It can help your thinking. When your brain receives better blood flow and oxygen, and inflammation and oxidative stress are reduced, there is improved cognitive function, according to studies. 
In fact, a 25 percent reduction in impairments of activities of daily living was found when adults drank three to four cups of tea daily. 
It might reduce cancer risk. Many animal and test-tube studies have found anti-cancer effects of tea, but human studies have been less consistent. 
"In lab studies, compounds in tea show a lot of cancer fighting promise. Many act as antioxidants, slow tumour growth and even increase cancer cell death," said Alice Bender of the American Institute for Cancer Research. 
"But the evidence is too limited and inconsistent to make any conclusions about tea and cancer risk for humans," she noted. 
It can help you lose weight. Not only does tea have fewer calories than most beverages (zero without milk and sugar), but certain compounds in tea, and especially green tea, have been found to burn body fat. 
Caffeine slightly increases fat-burning, but recent studies show "the combination of caffeine and green tea catechins [tea's antioxidants] is even more effective at increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation, though the effect is small, burning 100 calories over 24 hours, or a loss of 1.27kgs over 12 weeks," said Rick Hursel of Maastricht University, co-author of one study. 
It can help you de-stress. An amino acid called L-theanine, in combination with caffeine, might reduce stress. Several studies have shown that this combination, which occurs naturally in tea, reduces cortisol, the stress hormone, while improving mental alertness. 
"Tea consumption can positively affect mood and may improve creative problem solving, as compared to water," said Suzanne Einother, a Dutch researcher from Unilever (maker of Lipton tea), at the symposium.

Source-ANI
 

Exercise may Help Repair Heart Damage

Regular and strenuous exercise can repair damage caused by a heart attack, say researchers. 
The findings of the new study suggest that damage from heart disease or failure could be at least partially repaired through 30 minutes of running or cycling a day.
Researchers have found for the first time that regular and strenuous exercise can make dormant stem cells in the heart spring into life, leading to the development of new heart muscle. 
Scientists had already discovered that stem cells could be coaxed into producing new tissue through injections of chemicals known as growth factors, but the new study is the first to suggest that a simple exercise programme has a similar effect. 
An early-stage study on healthy rats showed that an equivalent amount of exercise resulted in more than 60 percent of heart stem cells, which are usually dormant in adults, becoming active. 
After two weeks of exercise the mice had a seven percent increase in the number of cardiomyocites, the "beating" cells in heart tissue. 
The team from Liverpool John Moores University said that they would now study the effects on mice which had suffered heart attacks to determine whether it could have an even greater benefit. 
"The exercise is increasing the growth factors which are activating the stem cells to go on and repair the heart, and this is the first time that this potential has been shown," the Telegraph quoted study leader Dr Georgina Ellison as saying. 
"We hope it might be even more effective in damaged hearts because you have got more reason to replace the large amount of cells that are lost," Ellison added. 
The study has been published in the European Heart Journal.
Source-ANI

 

New Model Explains How Mindfulness Meditation Helps Maintain Healthy Mind

A new model that shifts how we think about mindfulness has been developed by Brigham and Women's Hospital researchers. 
Rather than describing mindfulness as a single dimension of cognition, the researchers demonstrate that mindfulness actually involves a broad framework of complex mechanisms in the brain
 In essence, they have laid out the science behind mindfulness. 

Achieving mindfulness through meditation has helped people maintain a healthy mind by quelling negative emotions and thoughts, such as desire, anger and anxiety, and encouraging more positive dispositions such as compassion, empathy and forgiveness. 
But how exactly does it works has remained unknown, until now. 
The new model was recently presented to His Holiness The Dalai Lama in a private meeting, entitled "Mind and Life XXIV: Latest Findings in Contemplative Neuroscience." 
The researchers identified several cognitive functions that are active in the brain during mindfulness practice. These cognitive functions help a person develop self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART), which make up the transformative framework for the mindfulness process. 
The S-ART framework explains the underlying neurobiological mechanisms by which mindfulness can facilitate self-awareness; reduce biases and negative thoughts; enhance the ability to regulate one's behavior; and increase positive, pro-social relationships with oneself and others-all-in-all creating a sustainable healthy mind. 
The researchers highlight six neuropsychological processes that are active mechanisms in the brain during mindfulness and which support S-ART. These processes include 1) intention and motivation, 2) attention regulation, 3) emotion regulation, 4) extinction and reconsolidation, 5) pro-social behavior, and 6) non-attachment and de-centering. 
In other words, these processes begin with an intention and motivation to want to attain mindfulness, followed by an awareness of one's bad habits. Once these are set, a person can begin taming him or herself to be less emotionally reactive and to recover faster from upsetting emotions. 
"Through continued practice, the person can develop a psychological distance from any negative thoughts and can inhibit natural impulses that constantly fuel bad habits," said David Vago, PhD, BWH Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, and lead study author. 
Vago also states that continued practice could also increase empathy and eliminate our attachments to things we like and aversions to things we don't like. 
"The result of practice is a new You with a new multidimensional skill set for reducing biases in one's internal and external experience and sustaining a healthy mind," said Vago. 
The S-ART framework and neurobiological model proposed by the researchers differs from current popular descriptions of mindfulness as a way of paying attention, in the present moment, non-judgmentally. With the help of functional MRI, Vago and his team are currently testing the model in humans. 
This new model of mindfulness has recently been published in the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Source-ANI
 

Four Heart Tests You May Actually Not Need

With cardiac ailments claiming millions of lives worldwide each year, there has been a significant rise in the gross expenditure of an average man on clinical tests each year. Regular check-up and screening tests play an important role in detecting a disease at an early stage and thus, accelerating the treatment, especially for heart patients. However, it is observed that tests have been done, even when not actually required, which has also, in many cases, lead to false positive results. 
Much to the rescue, heart experts Steven Nissen and Marc Gillinov have penned down a book titled ‘Heart 411:The Only Guide to Heart Health you’ll ever Need’ that has managed to be an eye-opener on which tests are actually required among cardiac patients and which are not.
 Listed below are four heart tests that may actually not be required. 

Echocardiogram: Costing around $200-$500, an echocardiogram is a moving ultrasound of the heart, demonstrating how efficient the heart is at pumping blood, and detects whether or not it has structural problems. 
Good for spotting atrial fibrillation, heart failures and murmurs caused by leaky or stiff valves, an echocardiogram is not a regular screening test, especially if you have mild heart murmurs, or coronary artery disease. The test can help people with high blood pressure by detecting abnormal enlargement, stiffness and weakness of the heart muscle, however; it is not a routine test if you are healthy and have no new symptoms. 
ECG or EKG: A readout of your heart’s electrical activity recorded by electrodes on the chest may help identify irregular heartbeats, heart attacks and other problems. However, no trials have shown that ECG’s help detect the risk of heart disease without symptoms. If you are a heart patient, you don’t require a routine ECG as long as you don’t have new symptoms. 
Stress test: If you’re healthy and show no signs of heart disease, you can say no to this routine test. Your doctor will carry out this test by putting your heart under stress by asking you to walk on a treadmill or a stationary bike while doing an ECG. This test may not detect early disease and the results read abnormal only if an artery is blocked 50 to 70 percent. 
Calcium scan: A coronary calcium scan forms a detailed picture of the heart and detects calcium deposits in the arteries, indicating risk of heart disease. Patients with symptoms are often advised to have a dye injected to help spot blockages. 
The calcium test score may help determine the treatment for people with risk factors such as high cholesterol. On the other hand, there have been randomized trials showing no connections between calcium tests and fewer death rates. Furthermore, the dye scan is thought to increase the cancer risk slightly and also contribute to kidney and thyroid problems. 
Reference: http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/rethinking-healthcare/symptom-free-5-routine-heart-tests-you-dont-need/7916 

 

Simple Tips to Beat Insomnia

People can overcome poor sleep by following a simple set of tips, say researchers. Evidence shows that insomniacs report low energy levels, mood swings, less productivity at work, relationship difficulties, and persistent poor sleep can even increase the risk of developing conditions including diabetes, depression, high blood pressure and strokes. 
According to Research at the University of British Columbia, every hour of sleep lost at night may cost us one IQ point the following day, and it is often a long-term issue - a quarter of people with insomnia have suffered from it for more than 10 years.
 To deal with their sleep problems without pills, most people focus first on what Colin Espie, professor of clinical psychology and director of the University of Glasgow Sleep Centre, calls "sleep hygiene" - our pre-bed routine, and the physical environment in which we try to sleep. 

Espie believes these factors account for a mere 10 percent of sleep problems "'most people with insomnia have better sleep hygiene than easy sleepers'." But most sleep experts concur that the following do make a difference, the Age reported. 
Firstly, a dark room is important to a good sleep. Also try to avoid "'blue light'" less than two hours before bed: research by the Lighting Research Centre at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in New York State suggests light from laptop, tablet and smartphone screens tricks us into thinking it is daytime and keeps us alert, although this has been disputed. 
Bedrooms should be a comfortable temperature (around 18C), quiet and well-ventilated, with comfortable beds and pillows 
Secondly, anything that stimulates the system like caffeine, alcohol, chocolate, tobacco, a heavy meal or strenuous exercise will make it harder to get to sleep. 
Indigestible foods are obviously best avoided; carbohydrates can promote serotonin, which aids sleep. Aim for a regular, balanced diet and no late-night excess. Twenty minutes a day of exercise will make a big difference to your sleep, but avoid it just before bed. 
Thirdly, a weekend lie-in or afternoon snooze can do more harm than good. According to research at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, "sleep debt" is best "repaid" by getting up and going to bed at your normal times rather than disrupting your body clock. 
Save sleep for bedtime as naps are recommended only if you are too exhausted to function. 
"Sleep hygiene" alone, however, will not determine whether or not we sleep well. 90 percent of the battle is in the mind, which is why talking therapies and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are coming to be seen as perhaps the most useful solution.
Source-ANI
 

How bacteria talk to each other and our cells


Bacteria can talk to each other via molecules they themselves produce. The phenomenon is called quorum sensing, and is important when an infection propagates. Now, researchers at Linköping University in Sweden are showing how bacteria control processes in human cells the same way.
The results are being published in PLOS Pathogens with Elena Vikström, researcher in medical microbiology, as the main author.
When the announcement goes out, more and more bacteria gather at the site of the attack – a wound, for example. When there are enough of them, they start acting like multicellular organisms. They can form biofilms, dense structures with powers of resistance against both antibiotics and the body’s immune defence system. At the same time, they become more aggressive and increase their mobility. All these changes are triggered when the communication molecules – short fatty acids with the designation AHL – fasten to receptors inside the bacterial cells; as a consequence various genes are turned on and off.
AHL can wander freely through the cell membrane, not just in bacterial cells but also our own cells, which can be influenced to change their functions. In low concentrations white blood cells, for example, can be more flexible and effective, but in high concentrations the opposite occurs, which weakens our immune defences and opens the door for progressive infections and inflammations.
Forskarna bakom studien
A team at Linköping University is the first research group in the world to show how AHL can influence their host cells. Using biochemical methods, the researchers have identified a protein designated IQGAP, which they single out as the recipient of the bacteria’s message, and something of a double agent.
“The protein can both listen in on the bacteria’s communication and change the functions in its host cells,” Vikström says.
Their laboratory studies were carried out on human epithelial cells from the intestines, which were mixed with AHL of the same type produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a tough bacterium that causes illnesses in places like the lungs, intestines, and eyes. With the help of mass spectrometry, they have been able to see which proteins bind AHL.
“We have proof that physical contact between bacteria and epithelial cells is not always required; the influence can happen at a distance,” Vikström says.
The team’s discovery can open the door to new strategies for treatment where antibiotics cannot help. One possibility is designing molecules that bind to the receptor and block the signal path for the bacteria – something like putting a stick in a lock so the key won’t go in. It’s a strategy that could work with cystic fibrosis, for example, an illness where sticky mucus made of bacterial biofilm and large amounts of white blood cells is formed in the airways.
Source:Linkoping University

Team finds a new way to inhibit blood clotting and inflammation

Scientists have identified a group of small molecules that interfere with the activity of a compound that initiates multiple steps in blood clotting, including those that lead to the obstruction of veins or arteries, a condition called thrombosis. Blocking the activity of this compound, polyphosphate, could treat thrombosis with fewer bleeding side effects than the drugs that are currently on the market.
Their findings appear in the journal Blood.
Blood clots are formed at the site of an injured blood vessel to prevent blood loss. Sometimes, however, blood clots completely clog an artery or vein and the surrounding tissues are damaged. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that annually, 300,000 to 600,000 Americans are afflicted with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, a blocked lung artery that often results from thrombosis, and 60,000 to 100,000 people die each year as a result of these conditions.
There are two pathways that trigger blood clotting. The tissue factor pathway helps stop bleeding if a person is injured. If any of the proteins of this pathway are missing, a bleeding problem will develop. In contrast, the contact pathway is activated when blood comes into contact with some artificial substances. Although this pathway can cause pathological blood clots, humans who lack proteins in this pathway do not have bleeding problems. These two pathways eventually converge to form a common pathway.
In 2006, the researchers found that compounds called polyphosphates can, when released from cell fragments called platelets, activate the contact pathway, said University of Illinois biochemistry professor James H. Morrissey, who led that study and the new analysis.
Because the contact pathway is not essential for normal blood clotting after an injury, interrupting polyphosphate “wouldn’t have the bleeding side effects that touching anything downstream of it in the clotting cascade (would) have,” Morrissey said.
The researchers found a variety of positively charged molecules that can bind to the negatively charged polyphosphate molecule and inhibit its ability to induce blood clotting. By adding these compounds to human blood and plasma isolated from the body, Morrissey and his colleagues were able to measure their effectiveness in inhibiting polyphosphate’s pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory activities.
The researchers also tested these inhibitors in mice that were afflicted with venous and arterial thrombosis or inflammation, and found that these inhibitors prevented or reduced these negative effects.
“What this shows is that you could put really potent inhibitors of polyphosphate in and interrupt the clotting system by decreasing thrombotic risk, but probably not increasing (a person’s) bleeding risk,” Morrissey said. “This is the proof of principle that it works.”
Although the compounds identified would not, by themselves, be good drug candidates, Morrissey said, the new study offers clues for developing more suitable drugs to target polyphosphates.
“I think that the work going forward would be to identify compounds that would be better drug candidates,” he said.
The study team also included researchers from the Medical College of Wisconsin. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health supported this research.

Source:Journal Blood

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