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Saturday, 14 May 2011

Is There a Connection Between Education and Ageing?

A recent insight has suggested that the highly educated tend to age slower than their   less-educated counterparts.
During the study, researchers at the University College London found that those who dropped out of school early had shorter telomeres, an indicator of cellular aging.Some of the reasons could be that the less educated hail from low-income backgrounds and hence may also be making unhealthy lifestyle choices - like smoking. Due to their lack of proper education, they may be unaware about health and nutrition. Further, they may also not have access to proper healthcare. "This study found that lower academic attainment is associated with premature aging of cells in the body. It reinforces the need to tackle social inequalities to combat ill health.It's not acceptable that where you live or how much you earn -- or lesser academic attainment -- should put you at greater risk of ill health,” said Jeremy Pearson, the foundation's associate medical director. 


Survey on AYUSH

For the first time, the Union government will carry out a survey on the use and acceptability of the alternative systems of medicine and employ the results for effective planning of a road map for Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH).The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) has agreed to include some questions, in its Consumer Expenditure Schedule for the 68th annual round of socio-economic surveys, for collecting information on AYUSH.Anil Kumar, Secretary of the Department of AYUSH, under the Health Ministry, said statistics were an essential base for good and effective planning. “However, the Department has no benchmark statistics available, from either a census or an adequate sample size-based enquiry, and hence the NSSO was persuaded vigorously to undertake the survey.”The NSSO will collect information from about one lakh households nationwide, in rural as well as urban areas. The survey will be conducted in four sub-rounds from July 2011 to June 2012. The results, expected to be available in 2013, “will give an authenticated base-level assessment from the household and population of the usage and acceptability of AYUSH systems,” Mr. Kumar said.
Source:The Hindu

Benefits of music therapy in palliative care

A new study has highlighted the benefits of music therapy in palliative care
According to the findings of Sandi Curtis, a music therapy professor in the Concordia University Department of Creative Arts Therapies, music can provide a great source of solace to people who face  terminal illness and are confined to a hospital bed or hospice room.
The findings of Sandi Curtis, a music therapy professor in the Concordia University Department of Creative Arts Therapies, are based on a unique collaboration she orchestrated between university music therapy students, musicians from a professional symphony orchestra and a hospital palliative care ward. "Our study showed how music therapy was effective in enhancing pain relief, comfort, relaxation, mood, confidence, resilience, life quality and well-being in patients ," Curis said.


Moms of Twins May Live Longer

Having two babies at a time is associated with a longer life, according to a new study. But that's not because doubling up on dirty diapers increases life span; instead, moms of twins are physically stronger in the first place.
One catch: The research, published today (May 10) in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, focused on a "natural fertility" population of women in 1800s Utah, so the results may not apply in today's in vitro fertilization (IVF) world.
However, the findings do suggest that rather than being a reproductive accident that drains mom of energy and nutrients, twins could be an evolutionary adaption in which healthy moms take the chance to pass on double their genes at once."We expected the exact opposite," study researcher Shannen Robson of the University of Utah told LiveScience. "We expected that since most humans have one baby at a time, having two would be really burdensome … [Twins] are an identifier of these women who are remarkable, physically exceptional people."
Natural fertility
Identical twins, created when one embryo splits into two during development, appear more or less at random. But fraternal twins, who develop from two separate eggs released and fertilized at the same time, show some patterns of both heritability — they run in families — and environmental influence. Not including twins conceived from IVF, twins account for 6 out of every 1,000 births in Asia, 10 to 20 out of every 1,000 births in the U.S. and Europe, and 40 out of every 1,000 births in Africa.
To look at twinning before reproductive technology and reliable birth control, the team used the Utah Population Database, an enormous genealogical record of Utah residents dating back to the early 1800s. From the database, they pulled family records of women who were born between 1807 and 1899 and who lived to be at least 50, so they experienced their full range of reproductive years. They excluded widows and wives in polygamous families to ensure they were comparing similar women. [The History and Future of Birth Control]
The result was a database of 58,786 women, 4,603 of whom had at least one set of twins. The researchers compared the moms of twins with the moms of singletons, looking for differences in life span, number of children, time between pregnancies and length of fertility, all measures of health.
Double the fun
Flying in the face of the assumption that a double pregnancy would sap a woman's strength, the researchers found that moms of twins beat moms of only singletons on every measure. They lived longer, had longer reproductive life spans, needed less time to recover between pregnancies, and had more children overall. The moms of twins born before 1870 had on average 1.9 more children than moms of singletons in their age group, and the moms in the post-1870 group each had 2.3 kids more than their singleton mom counterparts.
Because twins have a higher likelihood of death than singletons, the researchers adjusted that finding by infant mortality, assuming that a mom of twins might have more babies faster after a child died. After that adjustment, moms of twins still came out ahead, having 1.24 to 1.56 more babies than singleton-only moms. That exceeds the "plus one" effect you get from having twins, Robson said.
The results didn't differ as time went by, even though pioneer women in pre-1870s Utah had worse medical care than women born later. It's hard to compare the 1800s data to today, however, Robson said. IVF has increased the number of twins born. And other factors have changed as well: women have fewer pregnancies overall now than 1800s women in Utah, so their overall chances of having a spontaneous twin pregnancy are lower. One 2001 study of women in rural Gambia, however, did find that mothers of twins had better reproductive health than mothers of only singletons. [Read: 5 Myths of Fertility Treatments]
Robson and her colleagues now hope to look at the Utah women's twins, to see how they fared given the fact that twins are more likely to be premature and have health problems. They also hope to take a closer look at the supermoms who birth twins.
"By identifying them, we can then look at other aspects of what it is about them that makes them more healthy, live longer and have babies at a faster rate than everyone else in the population," Robson said.
Courtesy:Live Science

Agent Orange Linked to Kidney Cancer: Study

There appears to be a link between Agent Orange and kidney cancer in U.S. veterans exposed to the herbicide in Vietnam, a new study suggests.Researchers at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Shreveport, La. examined the records of 297 patients diagnosed with kidney cancer between 1987 and 2009. Thirteen of the patients, aged 39 to 63 when they were diagnosed, said they had been exposed to Agent Orange.Documented exposure to the herbicide and pathology reports were available for 10 of the patients. The researchers reviewed these patients' age at diagnosis, tumor size, side of lesion, pathology and survival.Nine of the 10 patients had clear-cell cancers, which typically have worse outcomes than papillary tumors, which appeared in one patient. One patient had both clear-cell and papillary cancers.During the average follow-up of 54 months, four patients developed metastatic cancer and one patient died from his cancer.The findings were presented Saturday during a special news conference at the American Urological Association (AUA) annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Research presented at meetings should be viewed as preliminary because it has not been subjected to the peer review that typically accompanies publication in a medical journal."We know that the chemicals in Agent Orange were extremely toxic, and are known to cause cancer," press conference moderator Dr. Anthony Y. Smith said in an AUA news release. "These data indicate that we may need to better determine whether exposure to these chemicals should be considered a risk factor for kidney cancer."
Source;Health Day News

UN Report Reveals World Wastes 1.3 Billion Tons of Food a Year

The United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization reports that about 1.3 billion tons of food is lost or wasted every year, which amounts to roughly one third of all the food produced for human consumption.FAO report distinguished between food losses occurring at the production and harvest levels typical of developing countries, and food waste, which was more a problem in industrialized countries as both retailers and consumers have a tendency to throw away perfectly edible foodstuffs. Findings highlighted that industrialized countries dissipate an average of 670 million tons of food per year while developing countries 630 million tons, Xinhua reports. Every year, consumers in rich countries waste almost 222 million tons of food as the entire net food production of sub-Saharan Africa, which is 230 million tons. The UN agency thus identified means by which nations must cut down on food waste to boost fight against famine, including more efficient harvest techniques and infrastructures to reduce resources squandering and clearer consumer information. FAO also stressed that it is essential to change consumer attitudes, spread awareness on limited natural resources and strengthen the overall food chain.


Friday, 13 May 2011

Is the Internet Transforming Healthcare?

Whether or not you work in the healthcare or pharmaceutical industries, it's worth noting the growing role of the Internet and social networks in how we make medical decisions. The fact that Americans are turning to the Internet and social networks for resources on some of our most deeply personal healthcare issues is a striking commentary on just how much our ideas about privacy are changing. If someone is willing to discuss their personal medical care in an open forum, it should give you pause to consider what else they might be open to discussing online, including, perhaps, confidential information about your company. With this in mind, the report "Peer to Peer Healthcare," released by the Pew Internet and American Life Project, reveals that, while many of us continue to consult family and friends about health problems, the Web has taken on greater importance than ever as a source of information, particularly for those grappling with chronic illness. In addition, another Pew report, "The Social Life of Health Information," finds that 11% of adults, have followed their friends’ personal health experiences or updates on via social networking sites. Even so, the majority of health care conversations continue to happen offline: Just 5% of adults say they received online information, care, or support from a health professional, 13% say they had online contact with friends and family, and 5% say they interacted online with fellow patients. The "Peer to Peer Healthcare" report is based in part on a national telephone survey of 3,001 adults which captures an estimate of how widespread this activity is in the U.S. All numerical data included in the report is based on the telephone survey. The other part of the analysis is based on an online survey of 2,156 members of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) who wrote short essays about their use of the Internet in caring for themselves or for their loved ones. "The Social Life of Health Information" report is based on a national telephone survey conducted in August and September 2010 among 3,001 adults in the U.S.

Google Facing Up to $500 Million Penalty for Illegal Pharmacy Ads?

The Wall Street Journal reports that Google has earmarked "$500 million to potentially resolve a case with the Justice Department" involving advertisements Google accepted from online pharmacies that violate U.S. prescription laws. The ads in question have appeared alongside search results as part of Google's popular AdWords marketing platform.
At issue is that Google charges advertisers a small fee each time a user clicks on one of the ads, and given the apparent popularity of being able to buy certain drugs online without a prescription, Google is now facing "allegations it made hundreds of millions of dollars by accepting ads from online pharmacies that break U.S. laws," says the Journal.
While the AdWords platform is a relatively automated system when it comes to setting up various ad campaigns, Google contends the following:"All ads in the AdWords program will be reviewed. If your ads don't meet our guidelines or are performing poorly, we'll notify you by email. We'll often stop running your ads until you're able to make the necessary changes. As soon as you make changes to your ad and save, your ad will automatically be resubmitted to us for review."So if Google has indeed "made hundreds of millions of dollars" from ads placed by illegal pharmacies, how did these ads slip past the approval process? The Journal wonders the same thing:"One question under investigation is the extent to which Google knowingly turned a blind eye to the alleged illicit activities of some of its advertisers—and how much executives knew, the people familiar with the matter said."
As far back as 2003, Google has banned ads from U.S.-based online pharmacies that sell prescription drugs illegally but in 2004 refused to ban ads from "Canadian pharmacies that send medicines to U.S. customers," says the Journal. And in February of last year, Google decided to only allow ads for accredited U.S. and Canadian pharmacies in an attempt to stem the tide of illegal pharmacy ads appearing alongside its search results.
But if some illegal pharmacy ads managed to somehow skirt the AdWords review process and, in turn, generated a substantial amount of advertising revenue for Google, a $500 million settlement (if Google has to shell out all $500 million) "would be among the highest penalties paid by companies in disputes with the U.S. government," according to theJournal.


Friendly Co-workers May Increase Your Lifespan

The amount of social support a person receives at work could indicate how well he or she is socially integrated at their place of employment, the researchers, from Tel Aviv University in Israel, said.
Interestingly, they found no link between social support from supervisors and a reduced risk of death, suggesting relationships with the boss don't have the same effect on your health.
The study involved 820 Israeli adults who were referred to a health service center for a routine examination. Those who were referred because of a suspected mental or physical health problem, or those who were diagnosed with a chronic disease, were excluded from the study. Participants worked in a variety of industries, including finance, insurance, public utilities, health care and manufacturing. The average workday was 8.8 hours long.
At the beginning of the study, participants completed a survey that asked questions regarding their work conditions, including their amount of social support.
Social support was judged to be high if participants reported their co-workers were helpful in solving problems and they were friendly.
The subjects were followed from 1988 to 2008, during which 53 participants died.
The link between social support from co-workers and mortality was strongest for subjects between the ages of 38 to 43.
"Our findings may have some important implications for the design of worksite health promotion interventions," the researchers write in the May issue of the journal Health Psychology. "Increasing peer social support…could, in principle, lower the risks of mortality for those participating in these interventions."
More work is needed to find the mechanisms behind the link. But circumstances at work are known to affect health. For instance, a study published last month found working long hours can increase the risk of heart disease. And studies have shown those who work in demanding, poorly paid jobs often have worse mental health than those who are unemployed.Here's a reason to be thankful for friendly co-workers: They may help you live longer, a new study says.
The results show social support from peers at work was associated with a reduced risk of death from any cause over a 20-year period.
The results held even after the researchers took into account other factors that could influence mortality, including cholesterol levels and blood pressure, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, amount of exercise per week, age, gender and education level.
Courtesy:My Health News Daily

Iraq, South Africa buck rising life expectancy

Average life expectancies are increasing steadily in most of the world, but men in Iraq and women in South Africa are bucking that trend with notable drops in their time on Earth.The World Health Organization said Friday the average life expectancy in Iraq fell to 66 years in 2009 from 68 years in 2000, when dictator Saddam Hussein was still in power.But while Iraqi girls born in 2009 — the most recent year for which figures are available — could still expect to live to 70, boys' life expectancy dropped sharply to 62 years, compared with 65 years in 2000."The figures reflect the chaos from the conflict and the impact on health systems," said Colin Mathers, one of the coordinators of WHO's annual World Health Statistics report.In South Africa, life expectancy for women fell to 55 years from 59 years in 2000 and 68 years in 1990 — a reflection of the country's high HIV infection rate. Men's life expectancy in 2009 remained stable at 54 years compared with the figure nine years earlier, but was down from 59 in 1990.Chad, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica were the only other countries where average life expectancy dropped between 2009 and 2000.Figures on life expectancy are the clearest single indicator of health around the world. And globally, they are increasing.A girl born today can expect to live for 71 years. This was up from 68 years at the start of the century.Men lagged behind, with a global average life expectancy of 66 years, up from 64 years, the report found.The combined figure showed an increase of two years since 2000, to 68.However, among both sexes there are still wide variations from country to country.Girls born in the Central African Republic and Chad today are likely to live for just 48 years — a combination of poverty, limited medical care and high maternal mortality rates. Male life expectancy is lowest in the small southern African country of Malawi, at 44 years.On the other end of the scale is Japan, where women can expect to live for 86 years — almost until the end of the 21st century. Men can expect to live longest in the tiny state of San Marino, which is surrounded by Italy.In the United States, female life expectancy at birth averaged 81 years in 2009, up from 80 years in 2000. American boys born today can expect to live for 76 years, WHO said. A five-year gap between the sexes is average across much of the world.The small East African country of Eritrea has continued its steep rise in life expectancy. In 2009 the average was 66 years, up from 61 years in 2000 and just 36 years in 1990.The figures are among over 100 health indicators that WHO tracks in its 193 member states, including mother and child mortality, obesity, disease prevalence and health expenditure.
Source:Associated Press

ICMR looks for partners to commercialise herbal composition to treat filariasis

Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has started scouting for partners to commercialise a novel herbal composition for treatment and prevention of filariasis and an immunodiagnostic reagent for detection of plasmodium vivax in patient’s blood.
Both the products had been developed by the institutes under the ICMR and were now up for grabs by the industry for commercialisation and further research, sources said. Studies were carried out to identify a lead for the development of potent macrofilaricidal from Trachyspermum ammi (Apiaceae family).
“It is an erect branched annual plant up to 90 cm tall, cultivated almost throughout India.  A fruit extract of T.ammi containing monoterpene derivatives has shown effective macrofilaricidal activity both in vivo and in vitro for which toxicological studies are going on. An Indian patent has been filed. The compositions would be effective against short-term as well as long-term treatment and/or prevention of filiraisis caused by Wucheria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Loa loa and Setaria digitata,” sources said.
Filariasis is a vector borne parasitic disease affecting millions of individuals and is the second leading cause of permanent and long-term disability in the world causing illness ranging from lymphatic inflammation and elephantiasis to skin disease and blindness.
The diagnostic reagent, the second product, is based on immunodiagnostic antibody probe for detection of P. vivax antigen. “Hybridoma cell line has been established for the production of monoclonal antibodies specific to Plasmodium vivax. Monoclonal antibody herein obtained, can be employed for the purpose of immunodiagnostic as an antibody probe for the detection of P. vivax antigen in malaria patient’s blood,” according to the official sources.
“This antigen is non-secretory type, since the monoclonal antibody did not react with plasma. The monoclonal antibody did not show any cross-reactivity with P. falciparum when tested by ELISA and on a western blot, establishing high specificity towards non-secretory antigens of P. vivax. An Indian patent has been filed,” sources added.
The parasite P. vivax is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of malaria. It is one of the four species of parasite, which commonly causes malaria infection in human. P. vivax can reproduce both asexually and sexually, depending on its life cycle stage.

Low-Calorie Diet Increases Lifespan

Lowering the core body temperature by opting for a calorie restriction diet could lead to a longer lifespan, a new study conducted by researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine reveals.
The researchers tested the effect of low consumption of calories on mice and found that those who were given a calorie  restricted diet  lived longer compared to those mice that had been given standard quality food.The researchers also tested the body temperatures of 24 people between 50 to 60 years of age and who had been on calorie restricted diet for the last six years and compared them with a similar number of people who were on standard diet and another group of endurance runners and found that those who were on the restricted diet had the lowest core body temperature.
“The people doing calorie restriction had a lower average core body temperature by about 0.2 degrees Celsius. What is interesting about that is endurance atheletes, who are the same age and are equally lean, don't have similar reductions in body temperature”, lead researcher Dr Luigi Fontana wrote in his paper than has been published in the journal Aging. 


E-Cigarettes That Alert You When Other Smokers are Nearby

 In a much-needed development, a new ELECTRONIC CIGARETTE has been made for the social networking generation with sensors that alert smokers when someone else is lighting up nearby. 
Packs of Blu e-cigarettes, which release a nicotine-laden vapour instead of smoke, vibrate and flash a blue light when they are within 50 feet of another pack.Smokers can meet up with their fellow e-cigarette users and exchange contact details - all of which is stored electronically inside the packs of cigarettes.
The reusable packs, which also serve as a charger for the cigarettes, will go on sale next month for 80 dollars for five e-cigarettes.
The cigarette cartridges last for an average of approximately 250 puffs before they need to be replaced

Developing World Women Urged to Adopt New Birth Control Methods

A new study says that new contraceptive methods are needed for developing world women, including one in four in sub-Saharan Africa, whose needs for modern birth control are not being met.
A 52-page report by the New York-based Guttmacher Institute urged new methods to reach 148 million women in three regions where there are 49 million unintended pregnancies every year resulting in 21 million abortions."Sub-Saharan Africa, south central Asia and southeast Asia are home to 69 percent of women in the developing world who have an unmet need for a modern method," said the study.
"Seven in 10 women with unmet need in the three regions cite reasons for nonuse that could be rectified with appropriate methods."
The women wanted to avoid falling pregnant but did not use modern protection due to health fears, infrequent sex habits, recent births or breastfeeding and opposition from partners or others.

Breastfed Babies Have Less Number of Behavioral Issues in Later Life

In yet another thumbs-up to breast feeding, a new study conducted by a group of British researchers has revealed that those babies who have been breast fed for at least four months develop fewer behavioral problems later in their lives.The researchers used data from the ongoing Millennium Cohort Study in which more than 10,000 babies of white ethnic background took part. The mothers were interviewed by the researchers first when the baby was nine months old and subsequent interviews took place every two years since 2000. The parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire detailing any behavioral problems exhibited by the babies and the researchers found that among those who had been breast fed for at least four months, just over 4 percent exhibited behavioral problems compared to 16 percent of those who were given formula milk.

Research councils under Ayush receive autonomy; work out action plans for current fiscal

The research councils in the areas of Ayurveda, Homoeopathy, Siddha and Unani under the Department of Ayush have been accorded autonomy by the Central government recently so that more time-bound results could be gained and concrete action plans have been put in place for these councils with targets for to be achieved during the current financial year.
According to the action plan, the Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) will register all the proposed and on-going clinical trials with the Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) for proper validation of the research findings.
“There is a need to evolve pulse diagnosis protocols. It was felt that the CCRAS should work on this area in collaboration with IITs or such other premier institutes. The CCRAS has proposed to conduct observational studies on the 17 drugs already tested under the Ayurvedic Clinical Trials Project. It was decided that instead of duplicating the work, CCRAS should instead undertake clinical trials on these 17 drugs,’’ sources said.
Government had issued notification to grant autonomy to the councils in March this year. It was also decided that the amendments would be made in the rules to recruit director generals and directors of councils and its institutes in the wake of autonomy.
“A decision has now been taken to change the recruitment rules so that “in-house” candidates are also eligible to apply for the top post. In view of this, the second rung of leadership needs to be quickly built up from amongst the serving officers of the Councils and Institutes so that these officers are eligible to apply when top level vacancies arise in the coming years,’’ sources said.
A database of institutes of repute is being prepared to utilise for departmental collaborative efforts and task forces have been constituted to work out such collaborative projects for the councils and the institutes.
A recent meeting chaired by the secretary of Ayush Department and attended by all senior officials and heads of councils and institutes have also prepared separate action plans for Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM), and Central Council for Research in Yoga & Naturopathy (CCRYN).

Earlier HIV therapy protects against virus spread

Treating HIV right away, before patients are too sick, dramatically lowers their chances of spreading the AIDS virus to a sexual partner, says a major international study that may convince more doctors to offer medication sooner.
The nine-nation study offers convincing evidence of what scientists have long believed — that HIV medicines don’t just benefit the patient, but may act as a preventive by making those people less infectious. Earlier treatment in the study meant patients were 96 percent less likely to spread the virus to their uninfected partners, according to preliminary results announced Thursday by the National Institutes of Health, which oversaw the research.
Those findings were striking enough that the NIH said it was stopping the study four years ahead of schedule to get the word out.
When HIV patients should start taking antiviral drugs is an important question. The pills are lifesaving but also expensive — up to $15,000 a year in the U.S. — and carry a range of side effects from diarrhea to liver damage.
NIH’s Dr. Anthony Fauci said the new study promises to change practice worldwide. In developing countries, where the drugs cost a few hundred dollars a year, patients tend to be far sicker before getting medication. Even in the U.S., where therapy starts sooner, doctors don’t always treat as early as was done in this study.
“It has less to do with a decision about what’s good for you from a personal health standpoint than what is the extra added benefit from starting earlier, i.e., transmission, especially if you have a partner who’s uninfected,” said Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
Condoms remain crucial for protection — the medications don’t change that longtime recommendation. All 1,763 couples in the study, where one partner had HIV and the other didn’t, were urged to use them.
“HIV-positive people cannot assume they are not infectious simply because they are already on treatment medications,” warned Dr. Thomas Frieden, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Previous research has suggested that HIV patients who use the medications are less likely to spread infection. But the $73 million study announced Thursday is the first to rigorously test that.
The couples, most of whom were heterosexual, were randomly divided. Among half, the HIV-infected partner started medication immediately after diagnosis. Among the other half, the infected partner delayed using the drugs until his or her level of CD4 cells — a way to measure the strength of the immune system — dropped below 250 or symptoms appeared.
In 28 couples, the uninfected person became infected by their partner. Only one of those infections occurred among the couples where the infected person was treated early, Fauci said.
The other 27 cases in which HIV spread involved couples that delayed drug treatment.
Importantly, more than half of those infections occurred when the patient’s CD4 count remained greater than 350, Fauci noted. That number indicates only moderate immune damage. Most developing countries don’t offer treatment until CD4 levels dip lower than that.
U.S. guidelines recently were changed to recommend that treatment begin when that immune system number is below 500, although many doctors haven’t yet begun following that advice, said Dr. Michael Horberg of the HIV Medicine Association and HIV/AIDS director for Kaiser Permanente. Some experts would treat even sooner.
The earlier treatment also helped reduce some complications — such as a form of tuberculosis — in the original patients, but there was no significant difference in deaths between the two groups.
The study included couples from Botswana, Brazil, India, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Thailand, Zimbabwe, as well as a few from the United States.

Source:Associated Press

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